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retical perspectives, schools of thought, social, historical and political contexts, interest groups With the issue of gambling, it is not enough to see the problem.


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Gambling problems as a political framing—Safeguarding the monopolies in Finland and Sweden. Jenny Cisneros Örnberg. Tuukka Tammi. 1Centre for Social.


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Although issues relating to the impacts of casino gambling have been Because it is arduous to separate economic impacts from social influences, social after alterations in the political-economic environment and developmental stage.


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The investigation also opened up the option of a new licensing system for betting, with the exception of betting on horses. In recent decades, Western gambling markets have typically been nationally based, and many of the jurisdictions have established national monopolies around gambling. The Ministry of Finance is responsible for overseeing gambling and lotteries and the processing of permits, with the Gaming Board in Swedish: Lotteriinspektionen as the central supervisory authority. In the last few years, several countries have received inquires from the Commission on their gambling services and their compatibility with existing EU law. This article analyses gambling policy reforms in Finland and Sweden, where the liberalisation trend has been contested to safeguard the monopoly systems. Private companies are not allowed to conduct gambling activities. However, the legal dispute has continued due to different legal interpretations of the verdict from the Supreme Court of Justice. The government therefore appointed an investigation group in to make a general overhaul of the legislation in the gambling and lottery area. The biggest actor, with 53 percent of the regulated market, is the state-owned company Svenska Spel. However, the report has so far not resulted in any law changes. Although many EU member states are currently rethinking their gambling laws and policies, they have chosen different directions. The monopolies have been justified by their ability to provide revenues for the public good in the form of charities, grants, or taxes, but also for preventing fraud, money laundering, and black market gambling. This new system would increase the competition and allow private profit while at the same time being under Swedish control. There are also at the moment seven pending cases see, for, example SEC The different rulings have been interpreted by some lawyers as a sign that the CJEU, especially in the area of services, seems to prefer to delegate sensitive judgements to the national courts. The free movement of capital, goods, and services within the EU has, among many things, meant increased competition on the national level. The new situation has forced the European gambling monopolies to redefine their position. Later, the Gambling Market's Ethical Council was formed by the Swedish gambling companies with the purpose of working with ethical questions around gambling, lotteries, and their advertisement. There are competing ways of defining problem gambling or gambling problems. However, the rapprochement to the EU is not only about national implementation of EU law but also dependent on changes in social life and public opinion that affect how policy decisions are handled and framed within each national context. In , the gross gambling revenue sales minus prizes in Sweden was Gambling over the Internet, interactive games, and the increased interest of foreign companies in Sweden have changed the gambling market drastically and put pressure on the monopolistic structure in the country. However, since gambling monopolies are common in the EU member states, the legitimacy of restrictions in the area of gambling has been examined by the Court of Justice of the EU CJEU in a number of cases. At the beginning of , RAY's licence was expanded to allow gambling on the Internet. Some of the countries have responded to the new situation by giving up or remarkably weakening their monopolies, but other countries have, on the contrary, reformed their monopoly systems to strengthen them to meet the new challenges. The Government grants licences for three gambling operators for five years at a time, with only one licence valid at a time for each type of gambling. Raha-automaattiyhdistys RAY , The Slot Machine Association, has a gaming licence for keeping slot machines available for use, operating casino games, and running casino activities. Finally, we briefly take up the politically charged case of Internet poker and examine how it has been dealt with in both countries. In its gambling jurisprudence, it has examined to what extent national authorities can impose restrictions on the cross-border provision of gambling services and whether these restrictions are compatible with the Treaties of the European Community. This article analyses how and by whom gambling policy has become framed in Finland and Sweden. While some countries e. ATG is a state-controlled company owned by the horse-racing associations. At the moment, The National Lottery, Veikkaus Ab, which is totally owned by the state, has a monopoly on the lottery and betting business. Folkspel was founded in and consists of approximately 75 voluntary organisations; the surplus of their activities goes back to the members. Profits from Fintoto go to equestrian sports, and profits from Veikkaus go to culture, sports, and youth work. On the basis of these data, we have systematically and critically examined the policy developments and arguments put forward in Sweden and Finland to offer insight into how the issue of gambling has been reframed in both countries. This organisation, the SNIPH, Svenska Spel, and other concerned parties cooperate and consult each other when it comes to gambling and gambling responsibility in a trade association called Oberoende spelsamverkan OSS. However, the report was not able to present a complete bill proposal and analysis of all relevant questions for future Swedish gambling legislation. The following section describes how gambling policy development has proceeded in Finland and Sweden. The Advocate General of the CJEU proposed that the state monopoly should be replaced by a system with licences, without sole rights, but still including strong state control. Gambling monopolies should clearly and effectively focus on preventing gambling-related problems. In this article, we analyse parallel developments of two interrelated national gambling monopoly systems in which the trend towards freer gambling markets has been contested. The main means have been an increased focus on gambling-related problems and emphasis on the responsible nature and particular capability of monopoly-based systems to tackle these problems. As we have shown, the EU involvement in national policy-making in gambling has increased, and, in particular, the Gambelli verdict stressed the importance of sincere and honest public health interest in regulating gambling markets. The court judged that the Swedish regulations were necessary, proportional, and nondiscriminatory. This has been made possible by repeated rulings by the European Court of Justice establishing that the EU's principle of freedom to provide services can be restricted if it is justified by an overriding reason relating to the public interest. Secondly, we describe the regulatory systems of gambling in Sweden and Finland. Even though gambling is a national question and so far has not been the object of any harmonisation initiatives within the EU, the Commission has on several occasions questioned national gambling regulations. The CJEU, however, went against the recommendation of the Advocate General and concluded that the Finnish legislation was consistent with the principle of free movement of services and goods, on condition that the restrictions aim at limiting the possible harms of gambling. Svenska Spel has a monopoly on arranging lotteries and number games, betting on sport events and dog racing the latter dissolved in January , and slot machine gambling. The market shares were as follows: Veikkaus According to an unofficial estimate made by RAY and Veikkaus, gambling on sites owned by companies without a licence in Finland covers about eight percent of the total known gambling market Valkama, In particular, the proportionality of an exclusive licence in relation to the social and economic benefits was discussed. Gambling on horses is operated by the state-regulated company Fintoto Oy. RAY is a consortium of some nongovernmental organisations NGOs in the field of health care and social welfare. The company also has the licence to operate the four established international casinos in the country. In the global context, monopolistic markets are threatened by new technologies.

Many EU member states are currently rethinking their gambling laws and policies to adapt to European law and to take into account increased technological possibilities for the gambling industry and increased competition on national gambling markets.

However, the feasibility of sustaining monopolies or even national regulations has been questioned during recent years. Then we show how the interest in gambling problems politically, professionally, and publically has increased in the last few years.

In what follows, we describe how the gambling monopolies have responded to the recent development and more actively taken on public health—based arguments to protect, and even expand, their field of action in Sweden and Finland. However, in Octoberthe Swedish Supreme Administrative Court concluded that the Swedish gambling monopoly was not in conflict with European Community law.

The formal effects of EU policy-making on the national level have been extensively researched over the years, on topics ranging from defence industry to the environment.

The Advocate General indicated that the present situation with vigorous marketing campaigns, the interest from the organisations with licences to increase the amount of gambling, and the deficient control of gambling by youths were all in conflict with the claimed purposes of the monopoly.

In what follows, we first deal with the EU and its legal position on gambling. Both countries have similar regulated gambling systems with a few state-controlled gambling companies. The final report concluded that there were reasons to question the compatibility of Swedish gambling regulation with European Community law, since economic considerations had had a disproportionate importance.

This is especially apparent when it comes to social welfare policies such as those on alcohol and gambling. The Tripadvisor atlantic palace of Social Affairs and Health MSH is responsible for monitoring gambling-related problems for a more detailed description of the Finnish system, see Jaakkola, Inthe gross revenue sales minus prizes from gambling in Finland was 1.

The Ministry of the Interior is responsible for gambling licences, and the National Board of Police is responsible for national supervision. In the late s, the Finnish monopolies experienced increased competition from the Internet and gambling companies such as Centrebet, Expekt, Ladbrokes, and Unibet.

A first set of law changes came into force in Octoberand included, for example, tightening control of the marketing of nonlicensed gambling operators. At the same time, most member countries permit exceptions to this prohibition to a varying extent European Lotteries, Within the EU, gambling is regulated, in accordance with the subsidiarity principle, at the national level.

The material used consists mainly of written documents in the form of bills, speeches, government reports, publications, and official minutes from each country; records of actions of relevant EU bodies; and also media and public discourse. Several actions have been taken to compete with nonlicensed gambling companies; for instance, inthe Ministry of the Interior set up a gambling political and social issues group whose task was to propose measures according to which the government could take action to better uphold the exclusive right gambling political and social issues organise gambling, tackle social problems associated with gambling, and prevent crime.

The report also argued that it was impossible to legislate against competition from foreign actors and presented an alternative system with licences that both Swedish and foreign gambling operators could apply for.

Duringthe media started to show an increasing interest in the https://talyaclub55.ru/and/pala-casino-free-games.html effects of gambling. Sincethe SNIPH has financed a helpline where problem gamblers can receive consultation about their gambling free of charge.

The main reason for this is that lotteries and gambling involve a high risk of fraud and abuse for criminal purposes.

Gambling problems were also discussed in Parliament, and gambling operators started to develop standards for gambling responsibility. According to two large studies, the extent of gambling gambling political and social issues in Sweden seems to have remained the same over the last two decades, at about 2.

According to an estimate by Svenska Spel, gambling on sites owned by companies without a licence in Sweden covers about ten percent of the total known gambling market Lotteriinspektionen, For several years, international gambling companies such as Ladbrokes, Unibet, and Expekt, together with national newspapers, have been challenging the Swedish gambling monopoly.

The report, finished inmade the judgement that the foundation of present gambling regulation is in accordance with EU law and can function as a model for future gambling regulation. National restrictions and gambling regulations have been questioned in the name of free markets, and at the same time, the legality of preventing foreign actors entering the market is contested in many member states.

Furthermore, inthe SNIPH started an education and information campaign about gambling and gambling problems on the Internet. The proportion of the population considered to have a severe gambling problem this web page 0.

At the same time, the space for political action has opened up for new actors in national gambling fields, in particular for the private gambling industry.

Lotteries and gambling are, in principle, prohibited in the legal system of all EU member states. The court case was described as a crucial question for interest organisations, since they to a large extent depend on the subsidy that RAY distributes.

Svenska Spel also introduced a service called Spelkoll on gambling political and social issues Internet that analyses gambling patterns and alerts the person if risky changes in their gambling patterns are discovered.

Today, several private companies are offering gambling widely on the Internet in Finnish. The countries in question are Finland and Sweden, countries with a closely related political and historical past. Lotteries in Sweden fall under two acts of parliament: the Lotteries Act and the Casinos Act The Lotteries Act is prohibitive legislation which makes it possible only for those with a licence to arrange lotteries within the country, and all such permits are subject to governmental scrutiny. This has made it possible not only to keep the monopoly system intact but also to expand its field of activities to the Internet as a responsible measure. However, even though the Supreme Administrative Court established that the main purpose of the regulation was not to benefit the public treasury and that the system as a whole fulfils the demands of European Court law, they indicated that the Swedish system needed a review.